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Logistics must read | "China Transport Development" white paper for the first time, N first
Release time:2018-03-30 Browsing:553 Times

At the beginning of the founding of New China, transportation was very backward. The total length of railways in the country is only 21,800 kilometers, half of which are in a state of paralysis. Only 80,800 kilometers of highways can be opened to traffic and 51,000 civilian vehicles. Inland waterway is in a natural state. There are only 12 civil aviation routes. There are fewer postal service outlets. The main means of transport are animal carts and wooden sailboats.


After the founding of New China, the Chinese government clearly stated that we must first create some basic conditions to restore transportation. After three years of restoration of the national economy, the damaged transport facilities and equipment were restored and the water, land and air transportation were restored. From 1953 onwards, it began to carry out planned transportation construction. During the first and second five-year plans and the adjustment of the national economy (1953-1965), the state invested in transportation and inclined to renovate and build a number of railways, highways, port terminals, and civilian airports. The coverage of transportation infrastructure in remote areas has dredged the main channels, opened new international and domestic waterways and air routes, expanded the postal network, and increased the number of transport equipment. During the "Cultural Revolution" period (1966-1976), the development of transportation was seriously disrupted at the time, but the scale of facilities and equipment and transportation routes are still increasing, especially in response to the increasingly serious situation of pressure, pressure and pressure on major coastal ports. Speed up the construction of port infrastructure. During this period, pipeline transportation also developed.


In 1978, reform and opening up opened a new chapter in China's economic and social development, and transportation entered a stage of rapid development. The Chinese government has placed transportation as a priority for development, stepped up policy support, made groundbreaking explorations in liberalizing the transportation market and establishing socialized financing mechanisms, and actively reversing the passive situation in which transportation is incompatible with economic and social development.


The railway has implemented the economic contract responsibility system; three policies have been promulgated, such as raising the standards for the collection of road maintenance fees, the introduction of vehicle purchase surcharges, and “supporting roads for loans and recharging loans” to support the development of highways; and the implementation of the bidding system for highway and water transportation engineering construction projects. The port was the first to open up to the outside world, and the maritime industry first realized “going out”; civil aviation embarked on the path of enterprise development, and the air transport market began to form; the implementation of the reform of the postal management system, the establishment of a Chinese express service company, and the restoration of the postal savings business; Investment in transportation and construction will attract social capital to participate in infrastructure construction. In 1988, the Shanghai-Jiading Expressway opened to traffic and achieved zero breakthrough in the expressway in mainland China.


In 1992, China established the goal of establishing a socialist market economic system. Transport and transportation continued to intensify reform and opening up, and breakthroughs were made in the development of various modes of transportation. Launched the railway construction congressional battle. Since 1997, the railway has carried out six consecutive major speed-ups. Highways and water transport implement the "three-one-one support" plan for the main skeleton of highways, the main channel for water transportation, the main hub of the port stations, and supporting support systems, and has formulated the goals and tasks for accelerating the pace of construction. Civil aviation airport construction fees and infrastructure construction funds, railway construction funds, and inland shipping construction funds have been established.


In response to the financial crisis in Southeast Asia, China has implemented a proactive fiscal policy, investment in highway construction has entered the "fast track," and the construction of expressways has risen on a large scale. We will implement the strategy for the development of the western region and comprehensively strengthen the construction of railway, highway, airport and natural gas pipelines in the western region. The development goal of “renovating rural roads, serving urbanization, letting peasant brothers embark on the oil and cement roads” was launched, and a new upsurge of rural road construction was set. We will deepen the reform of the port management system and accelerate the construction of ports. The separation of posts and telecoms and the separation of postal administrations and enterprises have led to the development of the modern postal industry in which information flow, capital flow, and logistics are combined into a "three-in-one". A series of plans including the Medium and Long-term Railway Network Plan and the National Highway Network Plan have been issued. We will vigorously upgrade the level of basic public services for transportation, and comprehensively strengthen the construction of urban and rural passenger transport, urban public transport, and transportation security and emergency assistance and assistance. In 2008, the Ministry of Transport was established, and substantial progress was made in the structural reform of the major departments of transportation. In the same year, the opening of the Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Railway opened China’s “high-speed rail era”.


Since the party's 18th National Congress, transportation has entered a new phase of accelerating the construction of a modern comprehensive transportation system. In 2013, the railways achieved separation of government and enterprises, and the reform of the major departments of the transportation sector was basically put in place. Transport and transportation comprehensively deepened reforms, building a government of the rule of law, and speeding up the construction of “four transportations” for integrated transportation, smart transportation, green transportation, and safe transportation. The three major countries are the construction of “One Belt and One Road”, the coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, and the construction of the Yangtze River Economic Belt. Strategy development planning. Accelerate the integration of transport infrastructure into the network and promote the effective convergence of multiple modes of transport. Promote the development of modern logistics, improve the level of comprehensive transport service security. Strengthen the provision and management of basic public services for transport, and support the development of transportation infrastructure, urban and rural passenger transport, and urban public transport in contiguous and difficult-to-trap areas. The coordinated development of the “four plates” region in the east, middle, west and northeast regions was promoted, the high-speed rail in the western region was accelerated, and the traffic conditions in the central and western regions were significantly improved. In 2013, the Medog Highway in Tibet was opened to traffic and China truly realized the county-level highways.


For more than 60 years, China's transportation has generally experienced a struggle from “bottleneck restriction” to “preliminary relief” and then to “basically adapting” to the needs of economic and social development. The gap with the world-class level has rapidly narrowed, and certain areas have already exceeded An integrated transportation system that is moving towards modernization is being demonstrated to the world.


After years of reform and development, a comprehensive multi-node and full-coverage transport network has taken shape. The “5 vertical and 5 horizontal” comprehensive transportation major corridor basically runs through. A large number of integrated passenger and cargo hub stations (logistic parks) are put into operation, and transportation equipment is developed. With continuous upgrading, the level of transportation services has been significantly improved, major breakthroughs have been made in technological innovation and application, and the transportation market system, management system and legal system have been continuously improved.


 




1. Infrastructure network




The multi-level railway network basically formed.


As of the end of 2015, the total mileage of the country’s railways has reached 121,000 kilometers, ranking second in the world; of which 19,000 kilometers are high-speed railways, ranking first in the world. The rapid passenger transport network supplemented by intercity railways with the high-speed railway as the backbone was initially established. The double-track rate and electrification rate of the national railway reached 53.5% and 61.8% respectively. The large-capacity corridor that spans east and west and runs through the north and south gradually formed, and the logistics facilities were synchronized and perfected, gradually realizing the direct, rapid, and heavy-duty transportation of goods.


Wide coverage of the road network was established.


As of the end of 2015, the total mileage of highways in the country reached 4.5737 million kilometers. The mileage of the expressway reached 123,500 kilometers, ranking first in the world. The provincial highway network has been continuously improved, linking county-level administrative regions and above. The total length of rural roads reached 3.960 million kilometers, reaching 99.9% of townships and 99.8% of established villages. The technical structure of the road network is continuously optimized, and grade highway mileage accounts for 88.4% of the total road mileage.


The initial formation of dry-branch water transport network.


By the end of 2015, the country’s ports had 31,100 productive berths, of which there were 2,221 berths with 10,000-ton and above, and 1,173 specialized berths such as coal, crude oil, metal ore, and containers. The ports were large-scale, deep-water, and specialized. The level of automation and automation has been further improved. The navigable mileage of inland waterways reached 127,000 km, the graded waterways accounted for 52.2%, the high-grade fairways reached the mileage of 13,600 km, and the navigable conditions such as the Yangtze River, Xijiang River, and Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal continued to improve, and the two rivers were initially built. The line is the main inland waterway system.


The civil airport system has basically taken shape.


By the end of 2015, there were 210 civil aviation transportation airports across the country. The airport has primarily formed international hub airports such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou as the center. The provincial hub cities and key cities regional hub airports serve as backbones, and other trunk and branch airport airports are cooperating with each other. . The construction of air traffic control facilities has been continuously strengthened. In 2015, the number of aircraft takeoffs and landings was 8.556 million vehicles. General Airport accelerated its development. Airport rail transit and rapid airport expressway construction are accelerated, and the connection between airports and other modes of transportation is closer.


Township and township offices and villages and villages have achieved overall mail delivery.


By the end of 2015, the total number of postal routes in the country reached 25,000, the total length of postal routes (one-way) reached 6.376 million kilometers, the total number of postal service stations for general services reached 54,000, and the total number of village postal stations reached 210,000. The network of courier services reached 183,000, and the total length of the network (one way) was 23.705 million kilometers.


The initial formation of oil and gas pipeline backbone network.


By the end of 2015, the total mileage of onshore oil and gas pipelines in the country reached 112,000 kilometers, initially forming three major backbone networks covering crude oil, refined oil and natural gas in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) across the country, and “West East Oil Delivery and North Oil Supply. "Nanyun, West-East Gas Transmission, North-South, South-North, and Air Sea Landing" oil and gas transmission networks.


 




2, transport service capabilities




The volume of transportation ranks first in the world.


In 2015, the entire society completed 19.43 billion passengers, 30,047 million passenger-kilometers of passenger turnover, and completed 41 billion tons of cargo and 1,736.06 billion tons of cargo turnover. Railway passenger traffic volume and freight volume ranks first in the world, freight turnover volume ranks second in the world, road passenger and cargo traffic volume and turnover volume, waterway freight volume and turnover volume rank first in the world, total civil aviation transport turnover volume, passenger turnover volume Both cargo and mail traffic rank second in the world. The nation’s port cargo throughput and container throughput ranked first in the world. The number of service users in the postal service industry exceeds 70 billion, and the number of express delivery services in the world ranks first in the world. The number of large-scale online shopping promotion “Double 11′′ activities exceeds 160 million in a single day. The freight volume of the pipeline reached 710 million tons and the turnover volume reached 413.88 billion tons.


 


 


The overall quality of transportation services has been improved.


Advanced transport organization modes such as multimodal transport, drop-and-hook transport, and professional logistics such as cold chain have developed rapidly. Standardized transport units such as containers and van trucks have been speeded up. The degree of informatization and intensification of logistics distribution in urban and rural areas has been significantly improved, and social logistics operations have been improved. effectiveness. The level of transportation safety has been greatly improved, and the overall safety level of railway passenger transportation ranks among the highest in the world. In 2015, the number of deaths per 10,000 vehicles in road traffic dropped by 72.4% compared with 2005, and the number of accidents above the port throughput level of one million tons of transport ships across the country fell annually. In 5%, the major accident rate for civil aviation transportation for millions of hours was a rolling 10-year value of 0.018 (world average 0.24). The level of equalization of basic public service for passenger transport was vigorously promoted, and the “bus priority” strategy was steadily promoted. The national public transport lanes reached 8,569 kilometers, the length of bus rapid transit system (BRT) lines reached 3081 kilometers, and the special public transport service products such as custom bus and night bus were available. The new model is continuously enriched, and new businesses such as taxis are rapidly developing.


The accessibility of transport services has been significantly enhanced.


The proportion of high-speed railways covering 6 million or more people is 65%. There are 181,000 road passenger lines. The number of urban public bus (electric) vehicles operating lines exceeded 45,000, and urban rail transit lines reached 105, with a total length of 3195 kilometers. The waterway international transportation route and container liner route travel to more than 1,000 ports in more than 100 countries and regions. There are 3326 regular airline routes, with a route mileage of more than 7.866 million kilometers (calculated according to a repeat distance), access to 204 cities within the territory, 137 cities in Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan and 55 countries (regions). The coverage rate of township express delivery service outlets nationwide reached 70%.


The level of technology in transportation vehicles continues to increase.


By the end of 2015, the main railway lines had all achieved internal combustion and electric locomotive traction, and the variety and structure of passenger and cargo transportation vehicles had been upgraded. The number of civilian vehicles reached 172.28 million, and the total number of road passenger and cargo operations vehicles reached 14.73 million. The average tonnage of freight vehicles increased from 6.3 tons to 7.5 tons, and the proportion of special trucks (including dumping and transportation vehicles) increased from 5.1% to 27.2%. , The gentrification and comfort of commercial passenger cars, and the increase in the size and degree of specialization of freight vehicles. The number of water transport vessels reached 166,000, and the total shipping fleet capacity reached 160 million tons. The average tonnage of inland shipping vessels exceeded 800 tons, and the standardized rate of high-grade navigable waters reached 50%, and the trend of large-scale, specialized, and standardized ship development obvious. Civil Aviation owns 2,650 planes for transport aircraft, and general aviation companies own 1,904 aircraft. The postal industry has 244,000 cars of various types, and 71 domestic express freighters.


Initially establish an efficient safety supervision and sea emergency assistance system.


Establish and improve the national inter-ministerial joint meeting system for maritime search and rescue and major oil spill emergency response. The search, salvage and salvage power at sea continues to increase, and the search-and-rescue volunteer team continues to expand. Initially built a wide coverage, rapid response, three-dimensional and efficient water traffic safety supervision and maritime emergency protection system.


 




3, technological innovation and application




Infrastructure construction technology leads the world.


The high-speed railway, the high-cold railway, the plateau railway, and the heavy-load railway technology have entered the world's advanced ranks, and the high-speed railway has become a new business card for “Made in China” and “Going Out”. The railway and highway construction technologies such as the permafrost, expansive soil, and desert have overcome world-class problems. The Qinghai-Tibet Highway and the Qinghai-Tibet Railway have been opened to traffic. A number of world-class bridge tunnels have been built one after another, and the construction technology of special bridge tunnels has reached the world's advanced level. Key technologies for the construction of offshore deep-water ports, giant estuary waterway regulation technologies, long-reach navigation channel system treatment technologies, and large-scale airport engineering construction technologies lead the world, implementing major projects such as the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge, Yangshan Port Container Terminal, and the Yangtze River estuary deep-water channel management. .


Rapid progress in equipment manufacturing technology.


High-speed trains and high-power locomotives represent a group of high-performance railway equipment technologies with independent intellectual property rights that have reached the world's advanced level, and some have reached the world's leading level. The new energy road transport equipment was initially industrialized. The independently-developed regional passenger planes, general-purpose aircraft, and helicopters have been put into use. The C919 large-scale passenger aircraft has been installed offline. China has become one of the few countries in the world that can independently develop large-scale aircraft. Large-scale professional dock handling equipment manufacturing, marine machinery special ships, container equipment manufacturing technology leading the world, 300 meters saturated diving made innovative breakthroughs. Sorting technologies such as post optical character recognition (OCR), video complement, and code address verification are at the leading level in the world.


Informatization intelligent technology is widely used.


Information and communication technologies such as big data, cloud computing, the Internet of Things, and the mobile Internet are widely used in the transportation field. The combination of online and offline business models is booming. The railway has built a passenger online ticketing system and realized the informationization of transportation production scheduling and command. The highway electronic toll collection system (ETC) has basically achieved nationwide networking. The Port Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), Vessel Traffic Management System (VTS), and Automatic Ship Identification System (AIS) are widely used in water transport management and developed the Yangtze River Route Electronic Navigation Technology. Civil aviation business information system is at the advanced level in the world. Post established a national, provincial, and municipal three-tier video surveillance system. Modern RFID, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), etc.


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